Subversion is a Software versioning and a Revision control system. That is, Subversion manages files and directories, and the changes made to them, over time. This allows you to recover older

versions of your data or examine the history of how your data changed

SVN Commands:

1.SVN Checkout / co:

This command is used to check out the project from the server ( You should only need to do this once.


svn checkout “url” (or) svn co “url”


svn checkout http://

àIf need to checkout 32 Revision files means


svn checkout –r 32 http://

option -r à Revision no

2.SVN Status:

This command prints the status of working directories and files. If you have made local changes

A: File to be added

C: Conflicting changes

D: File to be deleted

G: File to be merged with updates from server

M: File has been modified

R: File to be replaced

G: File to be merged

X: Resource is external to repository

?: File/directory not under version control

!: File/directory missing

~: Versioned item obstructed by some item of a different kind.


svn staus

3. SVN Revert/Switch:

To overwrite local file(s) with the one in the repository, do an “svn revert”–you would do this if you want to go back to the version of the file in the repository (you will lose all changes you had made since the last commit)


svn revert filename

4. SVN Commit:

Recursively sends your changes to the SVN server. It will commit changed files, added files, and deleted files. Note that you can commit a change to an individual file or changes to files in a specific directory path by adding the name of the file/directory to the end of the command. The -m option should always be used to pass a log message to the command. Please don’t use empty log messages (see later in this document the policy which governs the log messages).


svn commit –m “log message” filename (or) svn ci –m

5. SVN Delete:

Delete file from repository. The UNIX command, “rm file-name” must perform a “commit” to update the repository and local working directory with the changes


svn delete filename(or)directory

also : del, remove or rm


svn commit –m “log msg”


Shows file difference between SVN repository and your file changes.


svn diff filename

svn diff -r rev1:rev2 filename

7. SVN Log:

Show the SVNlog messages for a set of revision(s) and/or file(s) and/or all directory contents in repository. Includes list of all files in change Shows the file changes associated with revision number.


svn log filename

svn log url

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Install PostgreSQL and PostgreSQL-server packages

[root@egrovechn]# yum install postgresql postgresql-server postgresql-contrib

Configure PostgreSQL Database Server

Initialize the cluster first with initdb command:

[root@egrovechn]# service postgresql initdb


[root@egrovechn]# /etc/init.d/postgresql initdb

Edit /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf file:

[root@egrovechn]# vi /var/lib/pgsql/data/postgresql.conf

Set PostgreSQL server to listen all addresses and Change PostgreSQL port (default is 5432). Add/Uncomment/Edit following lines:

listen_addresses = ‘*’

port = 5432

Edit /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf file:

[root@egrovechn]# vi /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf

Add (example) your local network with md5 passwords:

# Local networks

host       all           all           xx.xx.xx.xx/xx   md5

# Example

host       all           all        md5

# All Network

host       all           all  trust

Start/Restart PostgreSQL Server:

[root@egrovechn]# service postgresql start


[root@egrovechn]# /etc/init.d/postgresql start

Change to postgres user:

[root@egrovechn]# su postgres

Create test database (as postgres user):

createdb test

Login test database (as postgres user):

psql test

Create new “pguser” Role with Superuser and Password:


Open PostgreSQL Port (5432) on Iptables Firewall (as root user again)

Edit /etc/sysconfig/iptables file:

[root@egrovechn]# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables

Add following line before COMMIT:

-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p tcp –dport 5432 -j ACCEPT

-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –sport 1024:65535 –dport 5432 -j ACCEPT

-A OUTPUT -p tcp -m tcp –sport 1024:65535 –dport 5432 -j ACCEPT

Restart Iptables Firewall:

[root@egrovechn]# service iptables restart


[root@egrovechn]# /etc/init.d/iptables restart

Test remote connection:

[root@egrovechn]# psql -h dbserver -U testuser test

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A recent study reports that almost 40% of current Internet companies turn away international orders because they do not have processes or systems in place to fulfill the order or they don’t have idea of solutions for the challenges they are facing.

Even though, Internet makes it possible for a company to sell their products in an international marketplace through online, many companies are not prepared to go global. In this article we will study the general challenges faced by a company in International ECommerce and solution for the same.

Major Challenges of International ECommerce:
Cross border orders & Global Shipping:

Shipping is the key step in the International ECommerce Systems. Smaller products mean air transport is affordable but for larger merchandise the shipment through freight forwarder is feasible. The Ecommerce system should support both kinds of Shipment facilities.

Communication barriers:

Another challenge in international eCommerce is developing websites without communication barrier. It should support international audiences, i.e. customers of each country. The websites should also provide interface for translation of one language into another that addresses the culture of the target region or area. Read the rest of this entry »

The SDLC is Software Development Life Cycle, meaning the total development life cycle of a system. It describes the step by step processes that take places in the development of system. A Business Analyst is closely involved with the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

Steps of SDLC

The SDLC involves in the following steps:
• Feasibility Study – A feasibility study is done prior starting of the project to sure that the system is feasible.
• Project Planning – The project is planned with time-lines, resources and expected output of the process.
• Requirement Analysis – The system requirement is analyzed and documented on this stage.
• User Interface Design – The graphic designing of the system is build as per the requirements.
• Project Development – The project coding is done by the software programmers who are working on the project.
• Integration and Testing – The developed software is integrated and tested by the quality analysts.
• Acceptance and Installation – Here, the developed software is checked if it will be work in live conditions.
• System Maintenance – The software developed is maintained after installing to the live.

The Business Analyst
The Business Analyst is the bridge between the client and the technical team of software developers who are working on the project.

Business Analyst - Involvement
Business Analyst – Involvement

The Business Analyst has discussion with the client of the project, makes a through analysis of the system, defines the requirements, writes documents, explain the project to technical team and coordinate with them through out the project development.

The business analyst will provide different services during the SDLC:
• Assisting with the business case
• Making high-level feasibility studies
• Gathering of the requirements
• Designing and/or reviewing test cases
• Processing change requests
• Tracing the requirements during implementation
• Manage project scope
• Acceptance, installation, and deployment

The term ‘Business Analyst’ is synonymous with a career in the IT industry. The most successful and valuable analysts are those who understand the “business” rather than those who understand “IT”.

  • So what exactly is the Business Analysis?
  • What is the Business Analyst’s role?
  • What is the best background for this job?
  • What skill set is required?

Business Analysis:

Business analysis is the discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems. Solutions may include a systems development component and may also consist of process improvement or organizational change or strategic planning and policy development.

IT Business Analyst:

The people who carry out the process of Business Analysis are called a Business Analysts or BA. BAs who work specifically on developing software systems may be called IT Business Analysts, Technical Business Analysts, or Systems Analysts. Each organization may have its own ideas about the role, skills, responsibilities and expectations for the Business Analyst.

Business Analyst - Role
Business Analyst – Role

Modern Business Analyst – A Definition:

Most often, the Business Analyst (B.A.) is termed as communicator, because the B.A. is the link between the requirements (the client) and the software solution (the development team).

Role of the IT Business Analyst:

In the project initiation phase, the B.A. may be expected to investigate, formulate & agree terms of reference, and establish relationships.

In the analysis and specification phase, the B.A. may be expected to investigate business systems, to establish & agree business requirements, establish cultural & organizational changes required and advise on technology options.

In the design phase, the B.A. may be expected to propose, outline, design & specify business functions, to design manual interfaces and design implementation & training processes.

In the build phase, the B.A. may be expected to liase with the technical services provider, and plan/build/present system.

In the test phase, the B.A. may be expected to liase and manage acceptance testing.

In the implementation phase, the B.A. may be expected to liase and manage the implementation.

A Business Analyst may find them involved in some or all of the above roles.

Skills of an IT Business Analyst:

The skills required by the B.A. are much more than just good inter-personal communication skills and experience with wide range of tools and techniques are needed, as well as an appropriate background and personality.

Whilst the modern B.A. performs a highly critical role in software development, the real skills needed for success are not technology centric. At the core of the Business Analyst’s skills are process modeling, requirements gathering and requirements specification. However, the B.A. has a highly visible role in the project and extends through the life of the project


Today, the business process analysis, the requirements specification and the outline design – plus much of the acceptance testing and systems implementation work – is performed by the B.A.

Confused to choose a programming language for web application? Peek down for some handy info.

Mobbed with thoughts and definitions on Web Applications?? Here’s your one defining statement: “Web Application is an application that is accessed over the Internet and hosted in a browser-controlled environment”. Read the rest of this entry »

eGrove System at first focused website designing, building e-commerce websites, now masters every steps of a professional web project: concept, design, accessibility, development, web marketing, SEO and more

We base our offers on the market’s most powerful CMS like Joomla, WordPress, ZenCart etc, We provide our clients the most competitive prices and delivery time, a very large usability even for the most beginners, a security that’s everyday checked for issues and tested by hundreds of developers, a fully customizable template design etc. Read the rest of this entry »